PENGARUH KETINGGIAN LUBANG UDARA PADA TUNGKU PEMBAKARAN BIOMASSA TERHADAP UNJUK KERJANYA

Arif Mulyanto, Mirmanto Mirmanto, Muhammad Athar

Abstract


Alternative energies, e.g. biomassa, can be utilized using combustion processes in a stove. Nevertheless, traditional stoves that are available in the market or have been used by the community for years are not effective and efficient. One thing that may affect their efficiency and effectiveness is a distance between the combustion chamber and air hole. Therefore, this research investigates experimentally the effect of the distance.The tested stoves had identical combustion room and air hole diameters, but the distance between the combustion chamber and air hole was varied 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm. The combustion chamber diameter was 13 cm and the top diameter of the stove was 19 cm. The fuel employed was coconut shell with various size of 2-4 cm and 5-10 cm. One traditional stove was also tested as a comparison. The test were conducted by heating the water in a 18 cm diameter pan from the ambient temperature to the boiling temperature (1000C). Investigated parameters showing the stove performance were boiling time, FCR, heat input, heat output, heat losses and efficiency.The results show that the fastest boiling time (472 s) and the highest FCR (0,9407 Kg/h) were resulted in the stove with the air hole distance of 40 cm and coconut shell size of 5-10 cm. In this stove, the highest heat input, heat output, heat losses occurred too. On the other hand, the highest efficiency (15,62 %) was achieved in the stove with the air hole distance of 10 cm.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonim1, 2007, Bahan bakar dan pembakaran, Pedoman Efisiensi Energi untuk Industri di Asia pada www.energyefficiencyasia.org. diunduh pada tanggal 25 januari 2015

Anonim2, 2011, https://yefrichan. wordpress. com/2011/02/07/konversi-biomassa-menjadi-energi-1/ diunduh tanggal 25 februari 2015.

Anonim3,http://www.thermalfluidscentral.org/encyclopedia/index.php/Heat_of_combustion diunduh tanggal 21 mei 2015.

Barlin, Nainggolan M.P., 2012, Studi performa tungku pembakaran biomassa berbahan bakar limbah sekam padi, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Resatek, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang.

Budianto, A., Nurhuda, M., Nadhir , A., 2014, Uji Efisiensi Tungku Tanah Liat Berdaya Sedang, Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Brawijaya.

Demiyanti, 2010, Pembuatan beberapa macam ukuran lubang pada dinding tubuh tungku sekam untuk mendapatkan ffisiensi Kalor lebih tinggi, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

ESDM, 2012, Statistik Minyak Bumi 2012, http://www.esdm.go.id. Diunduh tanggal 25 pebruari 2015

Larson, E.D,. Kartha, S., 2000, Expanding roles for modernized biomass energy. Energy for Sustainable Development 4(3): 15-25.

Maulana, R., 2008., Optimasi efisiensi Tungku Sekam dengan Variasi Lubang pada Badan Kompor, Skripsi, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Najib, L., dan Darsopuspito, S., 2012, Karakterisasi proses gasifikasi biomassa tempurung kelapa sistem downdraft kontinyu dengan variasi perbandingan udara-bahan bakar (AFR) dan ukuran biomassa, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS).

Pranata, J., 2007, Pemanfaatan sabut dan tempurung kelapa serta cangkang sawit untuk pembuatan asap cair sebagai pengawet makanan alami, Teknik Kimia Universitas Malikussaleh Lhokseumawe, Aceh.

Suhandi, A., Rusdiana, D., Irzaman, 2013, Kajian dan terapan konsep fisika dalam desain tungku sekam, Jurusan Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Utami, Y., 2008, Desain dan uji unjuk kerja tungku briket biomassa , Skripsi, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Vidian, F., 2012, Gasifikasi tempurung kelapa menggunakan updraft gasifier pada beberapa variasi laju alir udara pembakaran, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, Fakutas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang.

Wahyudi, 2007, Karakteristik pembakaran biobriket dari campuran batubara dan limbah dadat pertanian, Jurnal Ilmiah Semesta Teknika, Vol. 10, 178 No. 2, 178 – 191.

Widiarto, I.H., 2012, Pengaruh luas celah udara pada kompor briket batubara terhadap efisiensi waktu pendidihan air, Skripsi, Fakultas Keguruan Dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Jember, Jember.

Yunianto, B., Sinaga, N., Ramanda S.A.K., 2014, Pengembangan disain tungku bahan bakar kayu rendah polusi dengan menggunakan dinding beton semen, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29303/dtm.v6i1.22

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Dinamika Teknik Mesin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.